Families: Enzymes & Friends

Enzyme substrate

Enzymes bind to substrates and catalyze reactions in four different ways: bringing substrates together in an optimal orientation, compromising the bond structures of substrates so that bonds can be more easily broken, providing optimal environmental conditions for a reaction to occur, or participating directly in their chemical reaction by forming transient covalent bonds with the…

Protein kinase

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4714867/ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8747436/ A protein kinase is a kinase which selectively modifies other proteins by covalently adding phosphates to them (phosphorylation) as opposed to kinases which modify lipids, carbohydrates, or other molecules.


Technical stuff about magnesium and Ca2+ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6129804/ Ca²⁺ ATPase is a form of P-ATPase that transfers calcium after a muscle has contracted. The two kinds of calcium ATPase are: Plasma membrane Ca²⁺ ATPase Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase

Na+ /K+-ATPase

Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase is an enzyme found in the membrane of all animal cells. It performs several functions in cell physiology. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase enzyme is active. Since the beginning of investigations of the Na,K–ATPase, it has been well-known that Mg2+ is an essential cofactor for activation of enzymatic ATP hydrolysis without being transported through the cell membrane.


The first step of converting protein in our methylation system uses magnesium. Protein is the basic component of living cells and is made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and one or more chains of amino acids. The three types of proteins are fibrous, globular, and membrane.



Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell’s biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria are found in all body cells, with the exception of a few. There are usually multiple mitochondria found in…

Multiple enzyme complexes

Multienzyme complexes are stable assemblies of more than one enzyme, generally involved in sequential catalytic transformations. These are distinct from a multienzyme polypeptide, in which multiple catalytic domains are found in a single polypeptide chain.

Nucleic acids

What are the 3 types of nucleic acids? DNA and RNA are made up of monomers known as nucleotides. The nucleotides combine with each other to form a polynucleotide, DNA or RNA. Each nucleotide is made up of three components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, and a phosphate group


These help copy RNA, which is essential for just about everything. Polyribosome (polysome) An aggregate of ribosomes in association with a single messenger RNA molecule during the translation process of protein synthesis. In eukaryotes, polyribosomes are attached to the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the outer membrane of the nucleus; in bacteria they are found…

Action potential conduction

Action potential has to do with how well the signal travels across nerves. During conduction of an action potential, the passive spread of depolarization to the adjacent distal region of membrane slightly depolarizes the new region, causing opening of a few voltage-gated Na+ channels and an increase in Na+ influx.

nodal tissue

A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the conduction system in the walls of the ventricles.

Neurotransmitter release

In the brain, magnesium is an important regulator of neurotransmitter signaling—particularly the main neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA—by modulating the activation of NMDA glutamate and GABAA receptors.


This is a very important function of magnesium, but its very complex https://www.jbc.org/content/262/2/757.full.pdf


ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. What is called ATP is often actually Mg–ATP.

Muscle contraction/relaxation

Muscle contraction usually stops when signaling from the motor neuron ends, which repolarizes the sarcolemma and T-tubules, and closes the voltage-gated calcium channels in the SR. Ca++ ions are then pumped back into the SR, which causes the tropomyosin to reshield (or re-cover) the binding sites on the actin strands. Magnesium has a strong interaction with calcium. It suspends and…

Calcium antagonist

Synthetic Ca2+ channel blockers are extensively used as anti-hypertensive agents. It is hypothesised that when administered in combination synthetic Ca2+ channel blockers and Mg are synergistic in the treatment of hypertension.

Transmembrane electrolyte flux

Magnesium helps setup the grid that allows cells to have different electrical charges than their surrounding area. Proteins transfer nutrients and ions in and out of the cell to take advantage of this energy potential. This is a slightly different topic discussed here, but may help explain what this is based on https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085625/

Cell adhesion

Cell adhesion is our cell’s method of interacting with neighboring cells. This is what allows us to have a body, instead of our cells just evaporating into the atmosphere similar to blobs of water in space. This is a complex process that requires a lot of resources and energy. Magnesium is one of many nutrients…

enzyme activation

Enzyme activation is done by several minerals. Different minerals are used to activate different enzymes depending when and where. “…thrombin (a sodium‐activated enzyme), pyruvate kinase, dialkylglycine decarboxylase, diol dehydrase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and tryptophanase (all potassium‐activated enzymes), and alkaline phosphatase (a magnesium‐activated enzyme)” I personally have a feeling different minerals can be used when we…

Membrane function

The cell membrane, therefore, has two functions: first, to be a barrier keeping the constituents of the cell in and unwanted substances out and, second, to be a gate allowing transport into the cell of essential nutrients and movement from the cell of waste products. Magnesium can affect muscle relaxation through direct action on cell membranes. Mg2+ ions close certain types of calcium channels, which conduct positively charged calcium ions…

5-Phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase

Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase superactivity is an X-linked disorder of purine metabolism associated with hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, comprised of two forms: an early-onset severe form characterized by gout, urolithiasis, and neurodevelopmental anomalies.


Phosphofructokinase-1 is one of the most important regulatory enzymes of glycolysis. Phosphofructokinase deficiency also presents in a rare infantile form. Infants with this deficiency often display floppy infant syndrome (hypotonia), arthrogryposis, encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. The disorder can also manifest itself in the central nervous system, usually in the form of seizures.

Guanylate cyclase

Guanylate Cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and inhibited by high intracellular calcium levels. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is an important transducing enzyme of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in striatum which has been considered as a potential target for the treatment…


A cyclase is an enzyme that helps form AMP and GMP. Read more at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclase


GTPases are an important target in human diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurological disorders, and cancers Small GTPases are proteins that switch between the GDP- and GTP-bound forms with the help of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs).


Atpases are a group of enzymes that convert ATP to ADP while harnessing the energy released in this process to drive other cellular processes. Dysfunctions of the F1Fo-ATPase complex cause severe mitochondrial diseases affecting primarily the paediatric population

Creatine kinase

Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and other tissues. Increased amounts of CK are released into the blood when there is muscle damage. When elevated CK levels are found in a blood sample, it usually means muscle is being destroyed by some abnormal process, such as a muscular dystrophy or inflammation. CK catalyses…


A hexokinase is an enzyme that converts certain sugars into a phosphate. Hexokinase deficiency is an anemia-causing condition associated with inadequate hexokinase. A new metabolic muscle disease due to abnormal hexokinase activity.

Kinases B

Protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) Appears to be a central player in regulation of metabolism, cell survival, motility, transcription and cell-cycle progression. Also involved in apoptosis. Kinase B controls several paths of reactions and works with many other enzymes. https://www.cellsignal.com/contents/resources-reference-tables/kinase-disease-associations/science-tables-kinase-disease